HOPE (1996) was composed for Tom Flaherty and Cindy Fogg, this duet for viola and cello explores various types of repetition, including repetition of idea, repetition of harmony and a basic pulse, which is perhaps the most primitive type of repetition. The repetition is rarely exact, developmental and is juxtaposed in the form of a pair of contrary themes, which on the surface don’t seem to fit together. They do however create a succession of aural events, which should in any case create an emotional effect. The listener might determine whether or not this succession of events represents, in the end, a positive or negative outcome. The title indicates the composer’s vote!